Discussion: Conditions, processes, and effects of private tutoring

Jörg Wittwer

Abstract


Private tutoring is an increasingly important topic in educational research. To advance our understanding of private tutoring, this special issue brings together empirical work on important aspects of this multifaceted phenomenon. This article begins with a discussion of conceptual, methodological, and practical differences between the four studies in this special issue (Brehm & Silova, 2014; Guill & Bos, 2014; Ireson & Rushforth, 2014; Lambert & Spinath, 2014). Then, a summary of the most important findings obtained in the four studies sheds light on three different facets of private tutoring, namely on conditions, processes, and effects. The conclusion addresses some directions for future research on private tutoring, including the conceptual clarification of the construct of private tutoring, the examination of factors that make private tutoring effective, and the comparison of private tutoring with other forms of instructional support.

Keywords


Conditions; Effects; Learning; Private tutoring; Processes

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Journal for Educational Research Online/Journal für Bildungsforschung Online (ISSN 1866-6671)